Maguires Tobacco Grower Guide

PLEASE REMEMBER TO ALWAYS READ THE LABEL BEFORE USING ANY CHEMICAL.

TOBACCO LANDS

Land Preparation

Soil texture, which is a measure of the clay, silt and sand proportions in a soil, is an important factor in determining whether a soil should be ploughed early or late. The inherent fertility, which is usually related to texture must also be considered. As a general rule, more fertile and heavier textured soils are best ploughed late. Early ploughing, before rains end has many advantages over late ploughing. These include lower costs, greater uniformity of land preparations and early decomposition of organic matter and hence more readily available nitrogen at planting time. It also makes conditions more favourable for water planting.

A deep plough and good land preparation are essential for maximum yield and quality. As a rule, a plough should never be less than 23cms. Another popular method is “rip and rhome” which is also done early in the year followed by further discing to keep the land free of weeds. With this method if there is under composed materials in the land at ridging the land must be considered as late ploughed.

Tobacco is grown on ridges for two major reasons:

  • To promote good surface drainage
  • Ridges priced a good growing environment for early growth of crop
AVERAGE ROW SPACING (cms)PLANT SPACING (cms)PLANT SPACING (cms)PLANT SPACING (cms)PLANT SPACING (cms)PLANT SPACING (cms)PLANT SPACING (cms)
464952555860
110197631855317483165291567415152
115189041774616722158101599214493
120181161700716026151521436813889
125173911632715385145451379313333
130167221569914793139861326312821
135161031511714245134681277112321
140155271457713736129871231512346
145149961407413262125391189011904
150144921360512820121211149411111

 

Fertilization of Lands

Your 3 main nutrients are Nitrogen, Phosphate & Potassium

  1. Nitrogen – requirement (including available nitrogen in soil) is 120 to 150kgs/ha. More will be needed in leaching rains.
  2. Phosphate – requirement is 20 to 35kgs/ha but will require 100 to 125kgs/ha as phosphate is
  3. Potassium – requirement is 150 to 200kgs/ha.

 

Magnesium – requirement is 13 to 20kgs/ha.

Lime – should be applied at between 600 to 1000kgs/ha if your pH is below 5.5.

Sulphur – requirements +50kgs/ha.

Boron – is essential on Zimbabwe soils for tobacco and a compound with boron must be used. Requirement is adequate using +450kgs Maguires High C (6.28.23).

The above requirements will usually be met using the following on early well ploughed land:

  • Upwards of 450kgs/ha of Maguires High C (6.28.23)
  • 300 to 500kgs/ha of Gypsum
  • 120 to 150kgs Maguires Ammonium Nitrate (34.5%N)
  • Alternate source of nitrogen instead of AN (34.5%N) is Calcium Nitrate (17%N) and Potassium Nitrate (13%N)
  • If crop is pale or leached at topping stage you can apply 100 to 150kgs Maguires Calcium Nitrate (17%N)

 

This table is a useful guide for amounts of fertilizer applied by cup. The rates are calculated for a level cup of dry material. These can be affected by moisture, incomplete stands and careless application.

FERTILISER MATERIALS APPLIED (kgs/ha) WITH CUPS OF DIFFERENT SIZE (ml)                
Ridge Spacing (cm)Between Plants (cm)Population (plants/ha)Ammonium NitrateCalcium Nitrate or Potassium SulphateUreaGranular Compounds
25825825858162230
1376111966235690307411818467364103206283386
152 + 1226111966235690307411818467364103206283386
12261134272563101338311321518272116231318433
10761152312972115389515124599482132264362494
12056148812870112379214723579180128256352480
1374615868307511939981572561978585273375512
152 + 1224615868307511939981572561978585273375512
122461781934841344411017628691099595307421575
10746203173996153501252013279124108108350480656

Land Chemicals

Control of Nematodes can be obtained by growing nematode resistant crops in your tobacco rotation crops are:

  • Emelo Weeping Lovegrass
  • Umgeni Weeping Lovegrass
  • Katamobora Rhodes Grass
  • Sabi Panic Gress (Panicum Maximum)
  • Sunhemp

 

Nematicides

CHEMICALRATE/HA OF USEMIXING INSTRUCTIONSAPPLICATION TIMEPEST/DISEASE
Telone50lts/haApply 600mls/100m ridge at 30 to 35cms below ridge surface,
preferably through two tines set about 20cms apart per row.
14-21 days before plantingNematodes
Velum 400SC1.125lts/haMix 250mls in 100lt water and apply 30 cup into planting water
or add 30mls in 2000lt water cart when using 5lt water in plant
hole at transplanting.
At plantingNematodes
Metam Sodium (Herbifume) 510SL 45-120lts/haApply 375 to 1250mls/100m
ridge at 30 to 35cms below ridge surface.
Needs water after
application to activate.
Rates are dependent on nematode infestation.
21 days before plantingNematodes
Oxamyl Granules20kgs/haApply into planting hole after planting but before covering.
Use a filed 2 cup.
At plantingNematodes
Solvigo 180SC3lts/haMix 675mls in 100lts water and apply 30 cup
into planting water in hole.
At plantingNematodes
SUPPLEMENTARY NEMATICIDES
Velum 400SC565mls/haMix 125mls in 100lts water and apply 30 cup at base
of plant on wet soil.
Between 5 and 7 w.a.pNematodes

Herbicides

CHEMICALRATE/HA PER USEMIXING INSTRUCTIONSAPPLICATION TIMEPEST/DISEASE
Clomazone (Command) 400EC1.5-1.75lts/ha Sprayed onto surface of soil over
seedling after transplanting.
Lighter soils at 1.5lts per ha
and heavier soils at 1.75lts per ha.
As soon as possible after plantingAnnual grasses and some broadweeds
Dual Magnum 960EC1-1.5lts/haSprayed onto surface of soil over
seedling within 5 days of
transplanting. Land must be free of
weeds before spraying.
Within 5 days after plantingAnnual grasses and some broadweeds
Frontier Optima0.7-1lts/haSprayed onto surface of soil over
seedling with 5 days of
transplanting. Land must be free of
weeds before spraying.
Within 5 days after plantingAnnual grasses and some broadweeds
Bateleur Gold 650EC1.5lts/haSprayed onto surface of soil over
seedling with 5 days of
transplanting. Land must be free of
weeds before spraying.
Within 5 days after plantingAnnual grasses and some broadweeds
Authority 480SC
(Sulfentrazone)
450mls/haSprayed onto surface of soil over
seedling within 4 days of
transplanting. Needs rain or
irrigation to activate.
Within 4 days a after plantingAnnual grasses and some broadweeds, nutsedges
Fusilade Forte 150SC0.85-1lts/haCan be directed onto the grass
weeds or spray over the tobacco at
any time after transplanting. Mix
with 100lts water/ha.
Post emergence spot sprayAnnual grasses and some broadweeds, nutsedges
Servian 50g/haCan be directed onto the grass
weeds. Must be shield sprayed from
the tobacco. Mix 50g/200lts water
per ha.
Post emergence spot sprayNutsedges

 

Insecticides & Fungicides

CHEMICALRATE/HA PER USEMIXING INSTRUCTIONSAPPLICATION TIMEPEST/DISEASE
Plesiva Star270g/haMix 60g in 100lt water and apply 30 cup into planting water or
add 7g in 2000lt water cart when using 5lt water in plant hole
at planting.
At planting False wireworm,
whitegrub, aphids, termites &
6 weeks cover in land
Cyantraniliprole400ml/haMix 90mls in 100lt water and apply 30 cup into planting water or
add 11mls in 2000lt water cart when using
5lt water in plant hole at planting.
At plantingFalse wireworm,
whitegrub, aphids, termites &
6 weeks cover in land
Confidor 70WG280g/haMix 60g in 100lts water and apply 30 cup into planting water or add 7g
in 2000lts water cart when using
5lts water in plant hole at planting
At plantingFalse wireworm,
whitegrub, aphids & termites
Thunder 145OD900ml/haMix 200ml in 100lts water and apply 30
cup into planting water or add 24mls in 2000lts
water cart when using 5lts water in plant hole at planting.
Check water pH.
At plantingFalse wireworm,
whitegrub, aphids & cutworm
Folicur 250EC1lts/haMix 220mls in 100lts water and apply 30 cup into
planting water or add 27mls in 2000lts water cart when using 5lts
water in plant hole at planting.
At plantingSoreshin
Decis Forte50ml/haMix 12mls in 100lts water and apply 30
cup over new planted seedling or can be mixed with
herbicide application.
Immediately after planting Cutworm
Karate Zeon SCS120ml/ha
175mls/ha for spraying
Mix 25mls in 100lts water and apply 30
cup over new planted seedling or can be mixed with
herbicide application.
Immediately after planting
(check water pH)
Cutworm
Belt 480SC37.5ml/haMix 15mls per 100lts water and spray 250lts mixture per ha
or 11mls per 100lts water and apply
30 cup over plant.
Suitable wetter helps to penetrate the bud.
After first sign of budwormBudworm
Larvin 375SC660ml/haMix 265mls per 100lts water and spray 250lts mixture per ha
or 275mls per 100lts water and apply 16 cup over plant.
After first sign of budworm & leaf minerBudworm & leaf miner
Bullet 60EC135ml/haMix 30mls/100lt water and sprat 450lt mixture per ha or
30mls/100lt water and apply 30 cup over plant.
After first sign of aphidsCutworms, late budworm & aphids
Magmectin 19.2EC400ml/haMix 200mls/100lt water and spray 200lt per ha or 90mls per
100lts and apply 30 cup over plant.
After first sign of budwormBudworm
Magmectin Ultra Duo 112EC250ml/haMix 125mls/100lt water and spray 200lt per haAfter first sign of budwormBudworm & aphids
Thunder 145 OD330ml/haMix 220mls/100lt water and spray 150lt mixture per ha per
75mls/100lt water and apply 30 cup over plant.
After first sign of budwormBudworm
Belt Expert 480SC120ml/haMix 80mls per 100lts water and spray 150lts mixture
per ha or 27mls per 100lts water and
apply 30 cup over plant.
After first sign of budwormBudworm & aphids
Calypso 480SC60ml/haMix 40mls per 100lts water and spray 150lts mixture
per ha or 14mls per 100lts water and apply 30 cup over
plant.
After any signs of aphidsAphids
Acetamprid 200SP60g/haMix 40g per 100lts water and spray
150lts mixture per ha.
After any signs of aphidsAphids
Thunder 145 OD 330ml/haMix 220mls per 100lts water and spray 150lts mixture per ha
or 75mls per 100lts water and apply 30 cup over plant.
After any signs of aphidsAphids & budworms
Belt Expert 480SC120ml/haMix 80mls per 100lts water and spray 150lts mixture per ha
or 27mls per 100lts water and apply 30 cup over plant.
After any signs of aphidsAphids, budworm, laceworm
Belt 480SC37.5ml/haMix 15mls per 100lts water and spray 250lts mixture per ha
or 11mls per 100lts water and apply
30 cup over plant.
Suitable wetter helps to penetrate the bed.
After first sign of lacewormLaceworm
Larvin 375SC660ml/haMix 265mls per 100lts water and spray 250lts mixture per ha
or 275mls per 100lts water and
apply 16 cup over plant.
After first sign of lacewormLaceworm
Belt 480SC37.5ml/haMix 15ml/100lt water and spray 250lt mixture per ha or
11ml/100lt water and apply 30 cup over plant.
Suitable wetter helps to penetrate the bud. (Aqua Right 5)
After first sign of tuber moth & leaf minerTuber moth & leaf miner
Larvin 375SC660ml/haMix 265mls per 100lts water and spray 250lts mixture per ha
or 275mls/100lts water
and apply 16 cup over plant.
After first sign of lacewormLaceworm
Trigard 75WP150g/haMix 30g in 100lt water. Spray mixture at 500lts per ha.
Rotate with other insecticides.
After first sign of leaf minerLeaf miner
Dynamec 18EC250ml/haMix 50ml in 100lt water. Spray to get thorough
coverage without runoff.
Rotate with other insecticides.
After first sign of leaf miner & red spider miteLeaf miner & red spider mite
Cartap 500SP1kg/haMix 500g/100lt water and spray 200lt mixture per ha.After first sign of pestsTuber moth, lead miner, bollworm, aphids & whitefly

 

Suckerides

CHEMICALRATE/HA PER USEMIXING INSTRUCTIONSAPPLICATION TIMEPEST/DISEASE
N-Decanol5lts/haMix at 4lts per 100lts water and cup on with a cup that the succeride just
reaches base of plant. Mix at 3lts per 100lt if using on very early topping.
At toppingSuckers
Flumetralin Duo
N-Decanol 30% +
Flumetralin 12.5%
2.4lt/haMix 1lt/60lt water and cup on with a cup that the suckeride just reaches base of plant.At toppingSuckers
Prime Plus
Flumetralin 12.5%
2lt/haMix at 1lt/74lt water and cup on with a cup that the suckeride just reaches base of plant.
Use 1 week after final topping.
After whole land has been toppedSuckers
Flumetralin 15%2lt/haMix at 1lt/74lt water and cup in with a cup that the suckeride just reaches base of plant.
Use 1 week after final topping.
After whole land has been toppedSuckers
Flumetralin 125EC
(Ecotopp)
2lt/haMix at 1lt/74lt water and cup in with a cup that the suckeride just reaches base of plant.
Use 1 week after final topping.
After whole land has been toppedSuckers

 

Control of Disease After Hail

CHEMICALRATE/HA PER USEMIXING INSTRUCTIONSAPPLICATION TIMEPEST/DISEASE
Bion 50WG
and
Twist 500SC
60g/ha

80ml/ha
Mixed with at least 200lts water per ha.After hailDisease caused by hail damage

 

Alternaria & Frogeye

CHEMICALS RATE/HA PER USEMIXING INSTRUCTIONSAPPLICATION TIMEPEST/DISEASE
Bion 50WG60g/haMixed with at least 200lts water per
ha.
Up to 4 sprays from 6 w.a.pAlternaria & Frogeye
Twist 500SC180ml/haMixed with at least 200lts water per
ha.
Up to 2 sprays from 6 w.a.pAlternaria & Frogeye
Folicur 250EC
(Tubeconazole)
500ml/haMixed with at least 200lts water per
ha.
Up to 2 sprays from 6 w.a.pAlternaria & Frogeye
Cabrio Duo1.5lts/haMixed with at least 200lts water per
ha.
Up to 2 sprays from 6 w.a.pAlternaria & Frogeye
Azoxy Duo 325SC500ml/haMixed with at least 200lts water per
ha.
Up to 4 sprays from 6 w.a.pAlternaria & Frogeye
Ortiva 250SC
(Azoxystrobin)
400ml/haMixed with at least 200lts water per
ha.
Up to 2 sprays from 6 w.a.pAlternaria & Frogeye
Amistar Top 325SC500ml/haMixed with at least 200lts water per
ha.
Up to 4 sprays from 6 w.a.pAlternaria & Frogeye

 

Sheds & Barns for Tobacco Beetle

CHEMICALRATE/HA OF CROPMIXING INSTRUCTIONSAPPLICATION TIMEPEST/DISEASE
Cislin 25EDAdd 60mls per 5lts water and apply 5lts per 100 square meters of shed.
Prior to storage and gradingTobacco Beetle
Decis ForteAdd 15mls per 5lts water and apply 5lts per 100 square meters of shed.
Prior to storage and gradingTobacco Beetle

For a downloadable version of the Maguires Tobacco Lands Guide click on the link below:

Maguires Tobacco Lands Guide

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